Disability: definition, types and models of disability (2023)

Update/Revision Date:2022-04-07
Author:World of the Disabled |Contact:Disabled World (Disabled-World.com)
Further references: Publications on types of disabilities

Summary: Defining disability, including the types of disabilities and defining the meaning of different models of disability. An impairment is defined as a condition or function that is considered to be significantly impaired compared to the usual pattern of an individual or group. The term is used to refer to an individual's ability to function, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, mental impairment, mental illness, and various types of chronic diseases. Disability classifications also recognize the role of physical and social environmental factors in influencing disability outcomes. Disabilities can affect people in different ways, even if one person has the same type of disability as another person. Some disabilities can be hidden, known as invisible disabilities. There are many types of disabilities.

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What is a disability?

An impairment is defined as a condition or function that is considered to be significantly impaired compared to the usual pattern of an individual or group. The term is used to refer to an individual's ability to function, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, mental impairment, mental illness, and various types of chronic diseases.

Disability is conceptualized as a multidimensional experience for the affected person. There may be effects on organs or parts of the body as well as effects on participation in areas of life. Consequently, the ICF recognizes three dimensions of disability:

  • Structure and function of the body (and its deterioration)
  • Activity (and activity restrictions)
  • Participation (and participation restrictions)

Disability: definition, types and models of disability (1)

The classification also recognizes the role of physical and social environmental factors in influencing disability outcomes. Disabilities can affect people in different ways, even if one person has the same type of disability as another person. Some disabilities can be hidden, known as invisible disabilities. There are many types of impairments, e.g. B. those that concern the person:

  • Vista
  • Listen
  • Thought
  • To learn
  • movement
  • Mental health
  • Recall
  • Notice
  • Social relationships
(Video) Models of Disability

What is the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)?

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, also known as the ICF, is a classification of the health components of functioning and disability. On May 22, 2001, the World Health Assembly approved the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and its abbreviation "ICF". This classification was first created in 1980 and later named the International Classification of Disabilities, Disabilities and Handicaps, or ICIDH, by the WHO to provide a consistent framework for classifying the health components of functioning and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) published the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001, which includes:

  • activity
  • mission
  • body structures
  • bodily functions
  • personal factors
  • healthy conditions
  • activity restrictions
  • functional limitations
  • environmental factors
  • Participation Restrictions

The ICF is structured around:

  • Functions and structure of the body.
  • Additional information on severity and environmental factors.
  • Activities (relating to a person's tasks and actions) and Participation (participation in a life situation).

disability assessments

Disability type categories include various physical and mental impairments that can hinder or reduce a person's ability to perform daily activities. These impairments can be described as the person's inability to carry out their daily activities. Disability can be broken down into several broad sub-categories encompassing the following 8 main types of disability.

  • Mobility/Physical
  • spinal cord (LM)
  • Head Injuries (TBI)
  • Vista
  • Listen
  • cognitive learning
  • mentally
  • Invisible
(Video) Disability Concept, Definitions and Models. Explaining the definition & concept of Disability

1 - Mobility and physical disabilities

This category of disability includes people with different types of physical impairments, including:

  • Disability of upper extremity(s)
  • Disability of lower extremity(s)
  • manual dexterity
  • Inability to coordinate with different organs of the body.

Limited mobility can be a congenital problem or acquired with age. It could also be the result of an illness. People with broken bones also fall into this category of disabilities.

2 - Deficiency of the spinal cord

spinal cord injury(SCI) can sometimes lead to lifelong disabilities. This type of injury occurs mainly in serious accidents. The injury can be complete or incomplete. With an incomplete injury, the messages sent by the spinal cord are not completely lost. While a complete lesion leads to complete dysfunction of the sensory organs.

In some cases, spinal cord deficiency can be a birth defect.

3 - head injuries - brain deficiency

A deficiency in the brain occurs due to abrain damage. The degree of brain injury can range from mild, moderate, and severe. There are two types of brain injuries:

  • Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

ABI is not a type of hereditary defect, but rather a degeneration that occurs after birth. The causes of these injuries are varied and mainly due to external forces applied to body parts. TBI leads to emotional dysfunction and behavioral problems.

4 - visual impairment

There are hundreds of thousands of people with minor to multiple serious problems.visual impairmentor defects. These injuries can also lead to serious problems or diseases such as blindness and eye injuries to name a few.

Some common visual impairments include corneal scratches, scleral scratches, diabetes-related eye conditions, dry eyes, and corneal transplants.

(Video) What is the social model of disability? - Scope video

5 - hearing impairment

deafnessincludes people who are wholly or partially deaf (deaf is the politically correct term for a person with a hearing impairment). People who are partially deaf can often useheadphoneto support your hearing. Deafness can be evident at birth or appear later in life due to various biological causes, for example meningitis can damage the auditory nerve or the cochlea.

Deaf people use sign language as a means of communication. Hundreds of sign languages ​​are in use around the world. Linguistically, sign languages ​​are as rich and complex as any spoken language, despite the common misconception that they are not "real languages".

6 - Cognitive or learning disabilities

cognitive disabilitiesare disabilities in people with dyslexia and other learning disabilities and include language disorders.

7 - Mental disorders

Mood Disorders: Changes in mood or emotional states, short or long term. Mental health impairment is the term used to describe people who have experienced psychiatric problems or illnesses such as:

  • Personality Disorders: Defined as profoundly inappropriate patterns of thought and behavior of sufficient severity to cause significant impairment in activities of daily living.
  • Schizophrenia: Mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, mood and behavior.

8 - Invisible disabilities

invisible disabilitiesthey are flaws that others do not immediately notice.

An estimated 10% of people in the US have an illness that is considered some sort of invisible disability.

See also:

  • Definitions of Disabilities
  • Disability Models: Types and Definitions

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(Video) Social Model of Disability

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Additional Types of Disability Publications

Disabled World is an independent community of people with disabilities established in 2004 to serveDisability Newsand information for people with disabilities, older adults, their families and/or carers. see oursmain pagefor informative reviews, exclusive stories and how-to guides. allowed toconnect with uson social media likebloodmiFacebookor learn more about Disabled World in ourabout usPage.

Disabled World only provides general information. The materials presented are never intended and should not be construed as a substitute for professional medical care from a qualified physician. Financial support is derivedAdvertising or Referral Programs, where indicated. Any third party offers or advertisements do not constitute an endorsement.

Cite this page (APA): Disabled World. (2022, April 7th). Disability: definition, types and models of disability.flawed world. Retrieved January 27, 2023 from www.disabled-world.com/disability/types/

Permalink: <a href="https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/types/">Disability: Definition, Types and Models of Disability</a>

(Video) Models of Disability | Inclusive Education | B.Ed and M.Ed


What are the models of disability types and definitions? ›

Although people have various individual perspectives on disability, these viewpoints can be categorized into three overarching models of disability—moral, medical, and social (Olkin, 2002). Each model addresses the perceived causes of disability, appropriate responses, and deeper meanings.

What are the 4 models of disability? ›

The handout for Module 2 Activity 2 of the Disability Inclusion Facilitator's Guide includes the definitions of the four models of disability: charity model, medical model, social model, and rights-based model.

What is disability and types of disability? ›

According to the World Health Organization, disability has three dimensions: 1. Impairment in a person's body structure or function, or mental functioning; examples of impairments include loss of a limb, loss of vision or memory loss. Activity limitation, such as difficulty seeing, hearing, walking, or problem solving.

How many types of disability are there? ›

Here is the list of 21 disabilities that have been identified under the RPWD Act 2016 of India.

What is the model of disability? ›

The social model of disability is a way of viewing the world, developed by disabled people. Scope's Everyday Equality strategy is based on this model of disability. The model says that people are disabled by barriers in society, not by their impairment or difference.

What are the 2 models of disability? ›

The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organised. The medical model of disability says people are disabled by their impairments or differences.

What are three types of disability explain each? ›

Types of Disabilities:
  • Visual impairment.
  • Hearing impairment.
  • Loco motor impairment; Cerebral Palsy.
  • Mental retardation and Mental illness.
  • Children with learning disabilities.

What are the four main categories of models? ›

Each of these fits within an overall classification of four main categories: physical models, schematic models, verbal models, and mathematical models.

What are the 3 most common disabilities? ›

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), three of the most common physical disabilities that affect people include arthritis, heart disease, and respiratory disorders.

What is the most common disability? ›

Physical impairment is actually the most common disability in the US. 1 in 7 adults, that is to say 13.7%, have difficulties getting around, walking or climbing stairs.

What are the types of disability cases? ›

Several different kinds of disabilities can qualify you for SSDI and SSI.
  • Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue. ...
  • Mood Disorders. ...
  • Nervous System and Sense Organs. ...
  • Intellectual Disabilities. ...
  • Circulatory System. ...
  • Schizophrenic and Other Psychotic Disorders. ...
  • Other Mental Disorders. ...
  • Injuries.

What are the 10 common disabilities? ›

Common Disabilities
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Learning Disabilities.
  • Mobility Disabilities.
  • Medical Disabilities.
  • Psychiatric Disabilities.
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Visual Impairments.
  • Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

What are the 13 categories of disability under IDEA? ›

The following are definitions of the 13 disability categories provided under IDEA.

Who definitions of disability? ›

The legal definition of disability

They have a physical or mental impairment, and. the impairment has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on the person's ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.

What are the 7 disabilities? ›

Different types of disabilities
  • vision Impairment.
  • deaf or hard of hearing.
  • mental health conditions.
  • intellectual disability.
  • acquired brain injury.
  • autism spectrum disorder.
  • physical disability.

How important are the different models of disability? ›

Understanding the different models of disability is important not just for people directly involved with a child or adult with a disability but also for everyone in society in order to build positive attitudes and a better understanding.

Why are models of disability important? ›

Models assist understanding by allowing one to examine and think about something that is not the real thing, but that may be similar to the real thing. People use a variety of models to obtain a clearer understanding of a problem or the world around them.

What is the social model of disability examples? ›

The social model of disability says that people are disabled by barriers in society, such as buildings not having a ramp or accessible toilets, or people's attitudes, like assuming people with disability can't do certain things.

What are 2 basic types of models? ›

Modeling & Simulation
  • Physical: A physical model is a model whose physical characteristics resemble the physical characteristics of the system being modeled. ...
  • Mathematical: A mathematical model is a symbolic model whose properties are expressed in mathematical symbols and relationships.

What are the basic types of model? ›

What are the 10 types of modeling? Fashion (Editorial) Modeling, Fashion (Catalog) Modeling, Runway Modeling, Commercial Modeling, Mature Modeling, Promotional Modeling, Parts Modeling, Fit Modeling, Fitness Modeling, Glamour Modeling etc are some of the types of modeling.

What are the 3 types models? ›

There are 3 common types of data models: relational, hierarchical, and network database.

What is model model and types? ›

A model is an abstraction of some system such as a man-made system or a natural system. The various uses of models are presented. The four basic types of models are discussed: iconic, graphical, analog, and mathematical.

What is the number 1 disability in America? ›

The CDC reports that arthritis is the most common cause of disability for U.S. adults. It often worsens as someone gets older. If someone has another disability, they also are more likely to have arthritis.

What is the number 1 disability in the world? ›

The most common disability type, mobility, affects 1 in 7 adults.

Is having anxiety a disability? ›

Yes, anxiety is considered a disability. Anxiety disorders such as panic disorders, OCD, PTSD, and phobias are regarded as disabilities. People with anxiety as a disability can qualify for Social Security disability benefits.

What is considered to be a permanent disability? ›

Permanent disability (PD) is any lasting disability from your work injury or illness that affects your ability to earn a living. If your injury or illness results in PD you are entitled to PD benefits, even if you are able to go back to work.

What disqualifies a person from disability? ›

To qualify for disability benefits, a person must not be able to engage in substantial gainful activity (SGA) earning up to a certain amount. If you are able to make more than the SGA, then you will not qualify. For 2022 the threshold is $1,470 per month. For an applicant who is statutorily blind the amount is $2,460.

What disabilities are hard to prove? ›

Mental disorders such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder are qualifying disabilities that are difficult to prove. Having a long history of medical treatments and contact with a mental health practitioner can improve your case.

How many definitions of disability are there under the ADA? ›

The ADA has a three-part definition of "disability." This definition taken from the Rehabilitation Act reflects the specific types of discrimination experienced by people with disabilities.

What are the two main models of disability? ›

The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organised. The medical model of disability says people are disabled by their impairments or differences.

What are the two main types of disabilities? ›

Types of Disabilities
  • Physical disabilities. A physical disability is one that affects a person's mobility or dexterity. ...
  • Intellectual or Learning Disabilities. ...
  • Psychiatric disabilities. ...
  • Visual impairments. ...
  • Hearing impairments. ...
  • Neurological disabilities.

What is the definition of a disability? ›

Disability results from the interaction between individuals with a health condition, such as cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and depression, with personal and environmental factors including negative attitudes, inaccessible transportation and public buildings, and limited social support.

What is disability category abcd? ›

03. *Details of PWD Category. Category A – Blindness and Low Vision. Category B – Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Category C – Locomotor disability including cerebral palsy, leprosy cured, dwarfism, acid attack victims and muscular dystrophy.

What are the 12 categories of the ADA? ›

There are 12 categories of places of public accommodation under the ADA:
  • Places of lodging.
  • Food and drink establishments.
  • Place os exhibition or entertainment.
  • Places of publich gathering.
  • Sales or rental establishments.
  • Service establishments.
  • Public transportation terminals, depots or stations.

What is the EEOC definition of disability? ›

The ADA defines a person with a disability as someone with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

What are the 3 parts of ADA? ›

The ADA is divided into five titles:
  • Employment (Title I) ...
  • Public Services (Title II) ...
  • Public Accommodations (Title III) ...
  • Telecommunications (Title IV) ...
  • Miscellaneous (Title V)
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